Difference between revisions of "Cold Metals Tier 1"

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See also [[Tier 1 Cold Metals Authorization]]
#REDIRECT [[Tier 1 Cold Metals Authorization]]
==== ”General Personal Safety, and Consideration of Others ====
You must work safely. Your actions must not threaten the safety of you, of others, or the tools.You should never operate machine tools under the influence of drugs (prescription or otherwise) or alcohol.It is your responsibility to protect your eyes. Safety goggles may be provided in the cage for activities that have the potential to generate flying particles. Activities which may, depending on circumstances generate flying particles include but are not limited to drilling, sawing, lathing, milling, hammering, chiseling, grinding, and belt sanding. Don't use goggles which are dirty or fogged-up. If cleaning is required cleansing pads may be available in the cage. To clean your goggles, all surfaces that have contact with the skin must be wiped down. The lens should be wiped down, both front and inside. If you choose to use purchase your own goggles be sure they are rated for labeled z87 (this should be written or stamped on the side of all goggles) and have side shields.Disposable earplugs may be supplied in the cage. Follow the instructions on the dispenser. They are surprisingly more effective if you do. Many types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are not effective if used improperly. If you don't know whether or how to use your protective equipment, read the instructions.Because of cost and hygiene problems, PS:1 cannot be depended upon to stock dust masks/respirators. If your work has the potential to generate dusts, mists, or vapors, you may proceed only by following these rules:
# Get your own respiratory protection. Ace Hardware has many types. Make sure the mask or filter is really for the substance confronting you. Do not, for instance, use a paper dust mask for organic paint fumes. Follow the mask manufacturer's instructions.
# Work in the back dock when possible, or with an exhaust fan on.
# If it is necessary to work in the main shop be sure you aren't inflicting your fumes or dust on someone else. It would be excellent if you as the fume generator waits until no one is present who could be harmed or inconvenienced by your activities.
When using power tools, remove gloves, watches, jewelry, and roll up your sleeves. Keep your hair tied back and tucked away. This is especially true for the drill presses, mill, and lathe. Tools with moving parts can injure your hands or catch your hair and pull your head into the machine. Gloves and loose clothing can also get caught in moving machinery. Never put your hand in the vicinity of any moving part of any machine. When adjusting the speed of a belt-driven machine (drill press, lathe, mill or other step-pulley drive) unplug the machine before putting your hands into the drive belts. Every Time.If in using any machine that cuts material, you cannot see a cut in progress because of chips or dust produced by the cutting process, a chip brush to clear the work zone -- never use your hands while the tool is on.PS:1 keeps fire extinguishers and first aid supplies on hand. It would be good to familiarize yourself with their locations before you begin your work.
It is best to not work alone in the shop while using machine tools. If you are hurt and cannot dial 911, another person in the space could do that for you. Use the right tool for the job. Incorrect tool usage produces bad results, and can be detrimental to you, your work, and the tools.Knowing a tool is knowing how it works. For instance, power tools make different sounds when they are working. Some sounds are HAPPY and some sounds are SAD. If you don't know how a tool should work, in spite of the demonstration given with this authorization, ask somebody who does know. (In future, this will be a proctor authorized on the given tool).Reading this agreement, and going through the orientation process provides you access to all of the tools in the cold metals area. Exceptions are
# the metal lathe,
# milling machine, which require a separate authorization.
=== Safe and Proper Use of the Power Tools ===
This is not an instructional guide to being a machinist. For skill development in using tools in fabrication, you should take a class of some kind and practice, practice, practice. In this authorization, you will be shown only the basic operation of the tools. The purpose of these minimal illustrations of technique is so that you might have some idea of the types of things the tools are capable of. Authorization gives you permission to use the tools. Authorization to use the tools is not a certification of your competence.
== Cutting ==
=== Horizontal Bandsaw ===
The horizontal bandsaw is only for cutting metals. Clamp your work securely in the vise. Be sure that the work cannot rotate or flip around in the vise when the saw is pulling the blade through the cut. Close the blade guides to the minimum distance that will (1) clear the workpiece and (2) not interfere with the movement of the saw at the bottom end of its travel. Set the force-control weight to apply proper pressure to the cut. In most cases, this is at minimum. (Closer to the motor is less cut force). Open the hydraulic valve to produce a good feed rate. If the blade seems like it's starting to snag the workpiece or clog the teeth, take a lighter cut by decreasing the feed rate. If the saw is not producing a chip, increase the feed rate. Unless there is a reason to be taking a very light cut, the sound of the saw teeth should be consistent during the entire rotation of the blade. Except when taking a very light cut, the sound of the saw teeth contacting the material should be consistent and chips should form at an even rate. Using coolant helps to preserve blade life, and increase the speed and quality of the cut. It also makes a mess. A major cause of blade breakage is thin workpieces snagging the saw blade teeth. Snagging causes teeth to be broken and can also cause the blade to stall or come off the wheels. Check the blade for missing teeth before using the saw. A blade with missing teeth is usually not fit for use. Using a fine pitch blade on soft materials like aluminum can clog the teeth and cause the blade to grab the work and stall. Be sure the chips are clearing the teeth. If not, use coolant or a wire brush to push the chips from the teeth. Using a coarse blade on steel will cause the teeth to snag on the work and break off. Turning the saw off (stopping the motor) while the saw is in a cut can cause broken teeth. Any problem that can break a tooth can also cause the blade to come off the wheels. Use the right blade for the work. Trying to mediate a cut on the horizontal bandsaw can cause saw blade teeth to be knocked off the blade; set the saw to lower the blade slowly into the work and then let go. Be gentle with the hydraulic valve. It only requires a feather touch to turn it. Over-torquing the valve handle can damage the valve. If your workpiece gets snagged and stuck on the blade, stop the saw immediately. Unplug the saw, then try to pull the workpiece straight down off the blade. To free the stuck workpiece, use a rocking or wiggling motion.
n-line with the axis of the blade. Don't twist the blade. A bend or kink ruins the blade. If you still can't get your workpiece off the blade, don't force it. Tag the saw as “out of order” and post a message to the list saying “The blade on the horizontal bandsaw is stuck. Could someone please un-stick it.” If the blade comes off the wheels, tag the saw and post the problem to the list.
Instructor demo: cut a piece of aluminum or steel stock.
Activity: 1) operate the hydraulic valve 2) cut a piece of material
== Drilling ==
=== DoAll Drill Press ===
The drill press is sometimes called the most dangerous tool in the shop because it is powerful, has a large exposed area of moving parts and is familiar in the way that “breeds contempt”. Drilling produces flying chips that will get in your eyes. Drill bits can break and fly off while in use. Wear eye protection when drilling. You must set the speed of the drill press so that it is appropriate for the drill diameter and material being cut. Excessive speed wears bits out quickly, causes vibration detrimental to the drill press, and produces a bad hole. If you have a feeds-and-speeds reference, use that. Otherwise, set the drill press to the minimum speed which will cut the work efficiently. The drill press speed is changed by cranking the adjusting wheel on the left side of the head. Do not adjust the speed unless the motor is running! If you are unsure of the proper speed for a cut, ask somebody who does know. (In future, this will be a proctor authorized on the given tool). Whenever possible use a sacrificial backboard to help keep from drilling into the drill press bed. The DoAll drill press doesn't have a hand crank for adjusting the table height. When you loosen the clamp so that the table can be moved, you should be aware that there is nothing holding the table in place on the column, and that the table can drop. Always support the table when the lock screw is loose. It is always best to clamp the work to the drill press table (as opposed to holding it by hand) because the work is more stable, producing a cleaner hole. Beware: The drill bit will often suddenly grab the work piece as it exits the bottom side of the hole. At this point, the force of the motor may start to spin the workpiece. Additionally, the workpiece may “climb the bit”. This action is fast and violent. As the motor whips the workpiece into motion, it can cross the palm of the operator, resulting in severe lacerations. Clamping the work reduces the danger of grabbing and climbing. Chips produced by cutting steel without coolant will be hot. It is a good idea to use cutting fluid when drilling steel, as the cut runs cooler and the bit life is greatly increased. Improper chucking of the bit can damage the chuck. Chuck only the shank of the drill, never the flutes of the bit. If the bit slips it will damage or possibly ruin the jaws of the chuck. Pre-drilling a pilot hole no bigger than 1/8” diameter can help center the hole. The bits we use at PS:1 have a flat point on the tip. It should come to a sharp edge. If it is not a sharp edge, i.e. rounded and shiny, the bit is dull and should be discarded. A word of advice: The difference in your effort and the quality of the workpiece is huge when using a sharp (fresh, new) drill bit, versus an old dull drill bit. Buy your own drill bits if you want an easy time making holes. So that users know what the drill press does, it is necessary to make some holes.
Instructor demo; show two ways of locating a hole. 1) The scribe, punch, pilot hole, drill, then Clean Up method. Use ~ 1/8” pilot and ~3/8” through hole drill 2) The scribe, center-drill (drill countersink) method
Activity: the user will pick one of the methods and execute a hole
Abrasive dust is harmful to the precision-ground surfaces on the Clausing metal lathe and the Bridgeport mill. Metal sanding and grinding tools are in the hot metals area.
=== Bench Grinder ===
The bench grinder is basically only for steel. Soft metals, aluminum in particular, fill the pores of the grinding wheels, rendering the grinder ineffective and dangerous. Never use the bench grinder on aluminum -- use the belt sander instead. Don't grind on the side of the wheel. This can, under rare circumstances cause the wheel to explode. If the work support on the bench grinder has more than 1/8'' clearance between it and the wheel, adjust the gap. Greater than 1/8'' clearance between the wheel and the work support can cause the work in your hand to be suddenly and violently pulled into the wheel or thrown. Always use the work support on the bench grinder -- never hold the work free in space against the wheel because the wheel can kick the work back at you and catch your hand.Instructor demo: with a steel (angle iron) workpiece, approach the wheel from several angles, demonstrating stance and feed technique
Activity: user will either sharpen or radius an edge or corner in the angle iron workpiece
=== Combination Belt-Disk Sander ===
The combination belt-disk sander uses sandpaper to cut material from the surface of the workpiece. Various grits of paper may be available to suit different requirements of surface finish and material removal rate. The combination belt-disk sander can be used on any metal, but only on metal. If the work support on the bench sander has more than 1/8'' clearance between it and the paper, adjust the gap. Dust from grinding organic materials is combustible and could be ignited by sparks from a subsequent grinding of ferrous metal. Freehanding workpieces on the sander should be done with a gentle touch and great caution, since the disk and the belt can both grab and then throw or slam the workpiece. The disk rotates in the clockwise direction. The direction of rotation is marked. On the disk, only use the downward moving side of the rotation, i.e. the right-hand side of the disk. Trying to use the left side of the dish will almost certainly result in the workpiece being thrown upwards. Don't dig a trench in the disk or belt by holding the work in one spot. Move the workpiece back-and-forth to spread the wear across the face of the sandpaper. Wearing a spot in the paper is rude to other members. Shoving a workpiece into the moving sand paper will tear the paper and take the tool out of commission. Be gentle pushing work into the sandpaper. If the sandpaper needs to be replaced, please tell the area host.
Instructor demo: sand a metal surface.
=== MISC:Air Compressor ===
Rust and other contaminants can collect in the air lines and become projectiles if shot out of an air nozzle. Do not point an air nozzle at yourself or others. Compressed air forced through skin can enter your bloodstream with serious consequences. Do not apply compressed air to your skin.
== Disclaimer ==
I __________________________________________ am giving this instruction for free. It is certainly not a comprehensive treatment of the subject matters being discussed. Although I do my best to be as accurate and complete as possible, I may leave out important safety information, and I may mistakenly say things that aren't correct. Nevertheless, I believe the content is complete and accurate enough to help PS:1 members work safely in the shop. Shop work carries a number of risks. People who use this information or the demos that go with it assume all risks themselves. From here, you're on your own. If you agree with the terms of this disclaimer, please sign, date, and print your name below.

Latest revision as of 12:27, 11 December 2018